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Conflict of Power Distance Individualism between American expatriate Vietnamese employees TABLE OF CONTENT INTRODUCTIONÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦3 BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANTÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.4 LITERATURE REVIEWÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦5 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD/ METHODOLOGY.7 Sampling designÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦7 Research designÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.8 Data analysis methodsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦8 INSTRUMENTSÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦..9 DATA ANALYSISÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦10 LIMITATIONSÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.12 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.13 REFERENCEÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦14 APPENDIX INTRODUCTION Due to extremely fierce competition between American companies, these companies try to survive by cost-reduction strategy. Thus, companies that pursue cost-reduction st rategy want to reduce costs by offshoring noncore departments overseas such as Vietnam. However, these American companies are not aware of the culture differences in developing countries that can lead to expatriate failure. According to Mendenhall and Oddou report in 1985, American expatriate failure rate is about 25 to 40 percent in period 1965-1985 (Mendenhall and Oddou, 1985). Later on, few American companies started recognizing culture conflicts in these developing countries and had reactions. Therefore, in 1988, TungÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s research reported that American failure is vary from above 10 to 40 percent, since still not every companies recognized (Tung, 1988). Valuing the important role of culture differences, this research examines the differences in individualism-collectivism, and power distance between American expatriates and Vietnamese employees. To have a better understanding about the different culture and its impacts on the success or failure of a country in pene trating a new market, during the November of 2013, we have carried out a survey and collected information from a small group of Vietnamese students currently studying at Troy University, United States. This survey is a basis for us to explain the different culture between Vietnamese and American students. Every year, offshoring companies must spend millions of dollars to build up overseas departments as well as costs to train and send expatriates and their families overseas. It provides expatriates, especially American expatriates, who will be sent to Vietnam, a better view about Vietnamese business protocols and leadership expectations. Thus, the successful probability of these American will increase, and offshoring companies can enjoy profits from offshoring plans. BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANT Nowadays, due to the saturated of America market, the competition between American companies have become extremely conflicting. Most companies try to provide the most favorable prices to attract customers, so cost-cutting become survival strategy. These American companies try to offshore the noncore departments to emerging markets, such as Vietnam and China. Because the labor cost in Vietnam is cheaper than China, so some American companies such as Nike Company, recognize the potential benefits in Vietnam and offshore to this country. In order to train Vietnamese employees to perform the tasks, these companies sent expatriates. However, some American companies do not recognize Vietnamese culture is conflict with American culture. Culture is one of the main element that impact business protocols and leadership expectation. Therefore, many times, culture confliction leads to failure of expatriates that cause the offshoring companies sufficient lost. This research provides a source of reference that help expatriates from developed countries, who will be delegated to developing countries a view of how collectivism and high power distance countriesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ business protocol. Therefore, expatriates can understand and have preparation to adapt to developing countriesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ environments quicker and easier. Specifically, this research will examine individualism of American and collectivism of Vietnamese. Americans support individualism, which means each individual is acting on his or her own, making their own choices and to the extent they interact with the rest of his group. In contrast, Vietnamese support collectivism, which means strongly orientated around family and community. Because of the Confucian roots, Vietnamese family and community comes before oneself, so they value the collectivism as a whole rather than the individual. Bringing pride to one family is the very important goal. The research also examines about the power distance of this two countries. Vietnam has high power distance, which means Vietnamese accept the unequal distribution of power, obey the order, and valuing hierarch, senior; while America is lo w power distance, which means the distribution of power is pretty equal, people can speak up what they think. (Ahlstrom, 2010). LITERATURE REVIEW Culture is commonly defined as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âa set of shared values and beliefs that characterize national, ethnic, moral and other group behaviorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Faure and Sjostedt 1993; Craig and Douglas 2006; Adapa 2008). Different cultures can generate distinct negotiation styles and perception (Van, 2009; Gulbro and Herbig, 1994). When working in the global commercial environment, knowledge of the impact of cultural differences is one of the keys to international business success. Therefore, improving levels of culture awareness can help companies build international competencies and enable individuals become sensitive. One of the biggest elements that leads to the failure of American expatriate in Vietnam is the conflict in leadership style. Since Vietnam is high power distance country, our traditional leadership style is Paternalism leadership. In this leadership type, leaders are viewed as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âfathersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Northhouse, 2013). Leaders are more willing to tolerate mistakes, emphasize harmonious, social relationship, and taking care of employees not only in workplace but also in private-life (Cheng, Chou, Wu, Huang, and Farh, 2004). In exchange, employees just obey the order of leaders. Employees do not have any discussion or question in leaderÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s decisions and orders. Asking employees to involve in decision-making is considered as leadersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ weakness. American leadership is reversed. Because America is low power distance country, American managers are more supporting and delegating employees. Each employee will have the right to make decisions that relate to the employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s tasks as well as responses for it. Employees value being empowered, respected, fair treatment, and trusted. It will be demotivating if employees could not partic ipate in companiesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ decision-making and receive close social relationship in work experience, (Raymond Loi, 2012). Thus, if the American expatriate adopts American leadership in Vietnam, it might lead to failure. Second conflict element is difference in communication. Since American managers come from low power distance and individualism country, they are more opening for having conversations. They also make mistakes by assuming that each employee knows what to do, understand the purpose of employee tasks, and ask if that employee have questions. However, Vietnamese employees are familiar with obeying orders. They just do what they have told without questioning or discuss, so many times, they do not understand the purpose behind the orders. They do not dare to question or discuss about their managersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ orders because are afraid the managers would think that employees may want to lead or unrespect the managers (Kirkman, 2009). They want to avoid ge tting punishment. Therefore, American managers should ensure that employees really understand the purpose of the order in order to limit mistakes. For example, new manager worked in a company. He asked an employee whether or not the bus station would be in front of the company. The employee just answered no, but he did not tell his manager that there were just short-walks from the company to the bus station (Ahlstrom D. ., 2010). Imaging that, not understanding the purpose of the leadersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ orders may lead to the failure of the tasks and in the worse scenario it might lead to sufficient losses. Vietnamese employees do not have high motivation to perform their best because Brett (2000) reported that normative behavior of people with low status in a high power distance culture is to minimize challenges to high-status members. Thus, there is no discussion between managers and employees. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSubordinates in high power distance countries are typically more r eluctant to challenge their supervisors and more fearful of expressing disagreement with their managersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Sage references). Employees just simply listen and do the assigned tasks from the managers, and sometimes even cannot understand the purpose of the tasks. In addition, managersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ decision making sometimes is affected by the emotional, or depends on their close relationship. That describes how the employees have low motivation. Different from that, in low power distance countries, each employee perform and response for their task by oneself. Managers just give motivation based on individual performance. Managers open the pay raise, and promotion fairly for every employee. Thus, employees have high motivation and try to perform as their best. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD/ METHODOLOGY 1. Sampling design The target population of this research is all Vietnamese students currently studying abroad. Then we choose a sampling frame, which is students who study at Troy University. It means that students who study at other colleges will be excluded from the sample. The sample size of this study is 30 current Vietnamese students studying at Troy University, Alabama. Samples are chosen randomly, from the Vietnamese students we know in Vietnamese community at Troy University. 2. Research design To collect the data, we use survey methodology Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" a technique that involves verbal/written communication and seems to be the most effective to collect the data. We will print out the survey questions, then directly give them to students. This survey content is designed in a nice format and easy to understand. The survey includes 8 questions presented in one page divided into 2 parts. The first part is the questions about power distance (PD). The second part is the one about individualism (IND). In the survey, the Likert scale (from one to five), with ranging from Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã â1 = of utmost importanceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã to Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã â5 = of very little or no importanceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã was used for all of the questions. This is really convenient for respondents to reveal their answers. All the questions in this survey may require no longer than 5 minutes for participants to complete. All these answers will be collected immediately after the students finish. 3. Data analysis methods In order to examine the survey objectives and describe its characteristics we conduct several statistics to analyze the collected data. To have a better understanding of each research variable and its characteristic, descriptive statistical analysis is used to illustrate the mean, proportion, standard deviation and confident interval for the means and proportion of each research variable. From the responses received, we continue to summarize and use Histogram to represent the collected data. INSTRUMENTS Survey Please give the score for each question: 1 = of utmost importance 2= very importance 3= of moderate importance 4= of little importance 5= of very little or no importance APPENDIX J. HOFSTEDE DIMENSIONS BY QUESTION Power Distance (PD) Q3: Have a good working relationship with your direct supervisor Q6: Be consulted by your direct superior in his/her decisions Q14: How frequently, in your experience, are subordinates afraid to express disagreement with their superiors? Q17: An organization structure in which certain subordinates have two bosses should be avoided at all costs. Individualism (IND) Q1: Have sufficient time for your personal or family life Q2: Have good physical working conditions (good ventilation lighting, adequate work space, etc.) Q4: Have security of employment Q8: Have an element of variety and adventure in the job DATA ANALYSIS DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Conflict of Power Distance Individualism" essay for you Create order Descriptive Statistics N Range Minimum Maximum Sum Mean Std. Deviation Variance Skewness Kurtosis Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic Std. Error PD_Q3 30 3 1 4 51 1.70 .119 .651 .424 1.188 .427 3.919 .833 PD_Q6 30 4 1 5 58 1.93 .185 1.015 1.030 1.201 .427 1.552 .833 PD_Q14 30 3 1 4 58 1.93 .172 .944 .892 .666 .427 -.492 .833 PD_Q17 30 4 1 5 86 2.87 .142 .776 .602 .242 .427 1.546 .833 IND_Q1 30 4 1 5 49 1.63 .169 .928 .861 1.940 .427 4.780 .833 IND_Q2 30 3 1 4 54 1.80 .147 .805 .648 .815 .427 .363 .833 IND_Q4 30 3 1 4 64 2.13 .184 1.008 1.016 .149 .427 -1.339 .833 IND_Q8 30 3 1 4 71 2.37 .189 1.033 1.068 .183 .427 -1.050 .833 Valid N (listwise) 30 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 Figure 1 shows the summary of individualism-collectivism and power distance from the Hofstede Center. Comparation between Vietnamese students studying abroad and Vietnamese students, we can easily see the differences through the results of the survey. The figure from the Hofstede website shows that Vietnam has high scores on power distance dimension (score of 70) and low scores in individualism (score of 20). However, according to the survey, Vietnamese students are extremely low in power distance (-20.83) and very high in individualism (85.83). There are many reasons that explain for this contrast. Firstly, the data from the Hofstede Center is outdated compare with our recent survey. Secondly, our survey sample is limited only students at Troy, while Hofstede Center is wide spread to whole nation. Last but not least, all of the sampling units are studying in America for more than a year, so they already got impact from American culture. LIMITATIO N The survey is conducted within a small sample size (30 Vietnamese students) and received 30 responses of students currently studying at Troy University in Alabama, United States. Therefore, this study may not reflect exactly results of the target population. Another limitation of this study is the unwillingness of respondents to answer the questions. It maybe some students think this survey is not necessary or important for them or they do not have enough time to fill in the survey. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Every year, there are a great percentage of expatriate have failures that causes sufficient lost for offshoring companies. Therefore, it is important to train and prepare for expatriate to be able to adapt in the new environment. Conflict of Power Distance Individualism between American expatriate Vietnamese employees is a useful reference for expatriate, who will be sent to work in high power distance and high collectivism culture. Through the survey from Vietnames e student studying at Troy University, we can understand about different culture between Vietnamese and American students, which help us to know the impacts on the success and failure of a country in penetrating new market. There is no doubt that American is the most powerful country, also their language- English, is the standard to use and to be learnt by all the countries to communicate. There are lots of available information about American can be found in all types of media as well as books, papers, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ throughout the world. Therefore, itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s easier for the other countries to find information and understand American culture. In Vietnam, children have chance to learn English at school from the young age, thatÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s the way how Vietnamese students approach to American culture. In contrast, it is hard for American to look for information about others country due to difficulties in the available sources, which is most displayed in the count ryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s own language. Their media do not display other countries news, and American is not train to learn about other countries such as foreign langue from early age. That explains why Americans do not familiar with other countries and less open with other culture and Vietnamese can adapt better than American even both countries get culture-sock. REFERENCES Ahlstrom, D. (2010). International Management Strategy and Culture in the Emerging World. South-Western Cengage Learning. Northhouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership Theory and Practice. Sage. Cheng, B.S., Chou, L.F., Wu, T.Y., Huang, M.P., and Farh, J.L. (2004). Paternalistic Leadership and Subordinate Response: Establishing a Leadership Model in Chinese Organizations. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 7, 89Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"117 Loi, R., Lam, L. W., Chan, K. W. (2012). Coping with job insecurity: The role of procedural justice, ethical leadership and power distance orientation. Journal of Business Ethics , 108(3), 361-372. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-1095-3 Kirkman, B. L., Chen, G., Farh, J., Chen, Z. X., Lowe, K. B. (2009). Individual power distance orientation and follower reactions to transformational leaders: a cross-cultural examination. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), 744. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/199815819?accountid=38769 Tung,R.L. (1988). The New Expatriates: Managing Human Resources Abroad. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Mendenhall, M. and Oddou, G. (1988). The Overseas Assignment: A Practical Look. Business Horizons, 78-84 Faure, G. O. Sjostedt, G. (1993). Culture and negotiation: An introduction, Newbury Park: Sage Publications. Van, D. T. T. (2009). A comparative study of Vietnamese and American customers behavior in negotiation style and implications for global pricing strategy, Journal of Global Business Issues, 3(2), 25-33 The Hofstede Centre. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://geert-hofstede.com/vietnam.html APPENDIX A: INPUT Sample size Power Distance Individualism Have a good working relationship with your direct superior Be consulted by your direct superior in his/her decision How frequently, in yourexperience, are subordinates afraid to express disagreement with their superior? An organization structure in which certain subordinates have two bosses should be avoided at all costs. Have suffcient time for your personal or family time Have good physical working condition Have security of employment Have an element of variety and adventure in the job 1 2 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 2 3 1 2 1 1 3 2 4 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 5 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 6 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 7 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 8 2 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 9 1 1 3 2 1 3 2 4 10 2 1 1 3 1 2 3 1 11 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 3 12 2 2 1 3 2 1 3 4 13 2 1 1 3 2 2 1 4 14 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 3 15 1 2 1 3 2 2 3 3 16 2 2 1 3 1 2 3 4 17 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 18 2 1 1 3 1 2 3 1 19 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 20 2 2 2 4 1 1 4 2 21 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 22 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 3 23 4 4 4 3 5 4 4 3 24 1 5 3 5 3 1 2 3 25 2 3 4 3 1 1 1 2 26 2 2 1 3 1 2 2 3 27 2 3 2 4 1 2 1 3 28 1 1 3 4 3 3 1 1 29 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 30 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 2 1
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Personification is necessary to the story because it allows the reader to get a better understanding of the characters. From this conversation with Whitney and Rainsford, we receive more information about Rainsford and his ideas about life and hunting. Rainsford shows apathy towards his game and believes the creatures he hunts have no feelings. Ã¢â¬Å"Rainsford presumes that hunting is a sport involving no more moral consequences than a game such as baseball; he further demonstrates his naivete by assuming that his victims, big-game animals, have no feelingsÃ¢â¬ (Dunleavy 1). Later these ideas Rainsford has about hunting game and their ability to emote is compared to General Zaroff and his ideas about hunting humans. While Rainsford displays indifference towards his animal hunting game and how they feel, General Zaroff has a similar belief with his hunting of humans. General Zaroff has become bored with hunting animals, Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Ë Simply this: hunting had ceased to be what y ou call a sporting proposition. It had become too easy.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ (Connell 6). However, his solution to his boredom is sinister, instead of hunting animals he hunts humans due to their ability to reason rather than use instinct. Much like Rainsford, General Zaroff had no feelings of pity or resentment for hunting his game. Not only does he get enjoyment out of hunting game which has more cognitive complexity than an animal, he also seems to see it as his right to rid the Earth of those subordinate. Ã¢â¬Å"Life is for the strong, toShow MoreRelatedThe Most Dangerous Game By Richard Connell1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesactions lead to many things. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Most Dangerous Game,Ã¢â¬ author Richard Connell reveals a conflict between the main characters, General Zaroff and Rainsford. Rainsford was to play the most dangerous game created by Zaroff, because the only way to survive, is to win it, otherwise death is the only other option. As demonstrated through the use of personif ication, symbolism, and repetition in the story, it conveys that one should understand to never underestimate another person and remember that there willRead MoreThe Most Dangerous Game By Richard Connell1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprey? In Richard ConnellÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, Ã¢â¬Å"The Most Dangerous GameÃ¢â¬ , the character Rainsford has a change of opinion and feelings to this very question. In the beginning of the story, Rainsford is on a ship with a colleague and expresses that he is only concerned about the feelings of himself as the hunter and not those of the Ã¢â¬Å"hunteeÃ¢â¬ . Not long after falling off the ship and arriving to a nearby island is it that Rainsford experiences what it is like to be the huntee. Connell uses many transitions withinRead MoreStudy Guide Literary Terms7657 Words Ã |Ã 31 Pagesextended metaphor, in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. The underlying meanin g has moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas as charity, greed, or envy. Thus an allegory is a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning 4. allusion- A reference in one literary work to a character or theme found in another literary work
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Bases of Power in an Organization Leadership in an organization can be defined as the approach and manner in which directions are provided, plans implemented and workers motivated. The bases of power can be said to be the ways and methods which the managers of an organization use in order to influence the behavior of the employees. It is also referred to as the possession of authority on the employees and having an influence over other people. We will write a custom essay sample on Bases of Power in an Organization or any similar topic only for you Order Now Power is extremely beneficial tool in an organization because it depends on it and the way it is used; it leads to either positive or negative change. Power is categorized into five bases according to French and Raven in 1960. Dependency, on the other part, is reliance of an organization on certain employees or even an employee relying on the organization. Overreliance of an organization on different individuals or a few workers is usually highly discouraged. This is because an organization can fail due to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s failure. In the given scenario, the organization is dependent on the employee 2 because he is the only one who can prepare the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial statement. The five bases of power are legitimate, reward, coercive, expert and referent (David, 1992). Legitimate power can also be referred to as positional power. This is because it is the position an individual holds in the given organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy. In this case, a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s power over the junior workers is given a priority. It gives the power to the managers to issue orders to the junior workers. In our scenario the employee 1 works in the marketing department where the marketing manager ensures and encourages employees to work even beyond the required 40 hours a week. He keeps on reminding the workers to work hard in order to receive the yearly bonus. Reward power is another base of power which arises from the personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to influence the allocation of resources and incentives in any given organization. The incentives can be in the form of positive appraisal, promotions and salary increment. People with this kind of power in an organization tend to influence other employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior. This kind of power works best if used well, though it is also demoralizing to the employees if favoritism is used and this diminishes the output. In our scenario above the employee 3 was rewarded with the reward power by corporation A. In this case the employee has just brought a new idea to the organization which the team members were unsure of, though they tried and it worked (Dean, 2003). Due to the enthusiasm of the employees, the employee 3 was selected to lead the team. The reward power is well demonstrated in this situation. Coercive power is the power that is derived from an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to influence other employees through sanctions, threats and punishment. This can lead to junior employees working hard even in extra hours to meet deadlines so that they can avoid punishment from the boss. This kind of power helps the boss to control behaviors of the organization and its norms. In the scenario above, the employee 1 works hard in the office. He stays in the office till late night and even on weekends to ensure the work is complete and accurate. Expert power is another type and base of power that is based on the knowledge and experience. Expertise of an employee in a specific area is particularly beneficial in an organization. Experience in a certain area of the organization is paramount. The employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions and ideas are highly regarded in the organization; hence they easily influence other workersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior and working patterns. This kind of power becomes the stepping stone that connects to other bases of power. This is because experience is truly vital for proper running of business. In our scenario above the employee 2 is the only certified public accountant (CPA) in the organization who works in the accounting department. He is the only one with the knowledge to prepare financial statements for the company and due to this he successfully negotiated with the accounting manager for him to work a compressed work week (Murphy Ebook Library, 2012). Referent power is the power that is derived from a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to form inter-relationship with others in the organization. This type of power is obtained when other people respect and like the worker. Through this their output is influenced by the employee through their admiration to the worker, their trust and respect. It is also obtained through the relationship with the people who matter in the organization, like the CEO. The Employee 3 can also be said to have been elevated to lead the team due to the admiration and enthusiasm he got from other employees. Reference David v. (1992). International Business Communication. New York: NY: HarperCollins. Murphy, F. , Ebook Library (2012). Community engagement, organization, and development for public health practice. New York: Springer Pub. Dean, T. (2013). Network+ guide to networks. Boston: Course technology/Cengage learning. How to cite Bases of Power in an Organization, Papers
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Work Health and Safety Management for Measures of People. Answer: Introduction Work health and safety plan is essential for a construction site that sets out an arrangement while managing different safety and health related measures of the people present in the site. The work health and safety management plan is formulated for the safety of the workers who are working at the construction site. The WHS management plan is formulated for the Strathfield Apartments. The WHS management plan will be formulated based on different aspects of that will cover the safety aspects of the workers. Safety plan is not only formulated for the construction sites but also for the companies of other industries. The study will describe the various aspects of the safety management plan such as WHS policy, hazard identification and risk control, incident management, cooperation, consultation and coordination, site safety rules, safety and health site inspections, roles and responsibilities of various persons while controlling the site. WHS Plan WHS Policy The construction company has different types of policies that are formulated for the companies and for the construction sites separately. There are high risks to the workers who are working at the construction sites. Work and health safety policies are mandatory for these workers. The policies will be framed as per the nature of the site along with the different risks required for it. Policies will be framed for certain situations like hazardous manual tasks, managing health and safety risks, confined spaces, demolition work, managing electrical risks, risks of falls, industrial forklifts, labeling of the workplace hazardous chemicals, preventing falls, traffic management, and working in vicinity under the ethical considerations of the company. Different considerations of the above factors are considered to formulate the policy of work and health safety of the workers. The elements of the policy include different safety requirements that are necessary for the site workers. However, t he company must align the WHS policies to the corporate ethics of the company as well as other goals and objectives of the project handling (Bell 2013). The policies must follow the various codes of ethics and conducts of the construction company. Roles and responsibilities of persons in site Different type persons are present when construction is going on a site. The persons who are associated with the construction sites are principal contractor, contractor, workers, site doctors, fire safety experts, electrician, etc. The roles and responsibilities of the assigned people are described in the following: Principle contractor Preparing implementing and updating WHS management plan Identification and observation of legal requirements of the plan Identification of training required Consulting and communicating with workers Dispute of resolution Commencing planning while performing work safely Contractor They are responsible for identification of construction work related to high risks. The contractors comply with the regulations and duties of the safety policies, site rules and procedures Contractors ensure workers while engaging themselves in applying correct equipment and tools. Workers Workers are responsible for taking care of the reasonable care of the health and safety. Workers will be cooperating with the policies of the reasonable notified procedures and policies. Other people having WHS roles and responsibilities The electricians are present in the site are responsible for maintaining different faults in the machines. The doctors will take care of the emergencies that can occur anytime at the construction site. Fire safety operations department will take care of the hazards that can cause accidentally due to fire. Hazard identification and risk control Hazards are identified systematically while assessing risks before starting the projects and thereby using the risk control. It develops PPE issues and register in order to control risks that are associated with construction work with high risk (Jones and Nhung 2016). A risk management form is to be formulated that contains necessary works. Apart from that, risks are identified before identification of the buying any types of chemicals or when introducing any types of new machineries in the tasks. It can also occur whenever a new information is received by the workers and there is a miscommunication. It is the responsibility of the principal contractor while identifying tasks. In the risk management control, the following steps control the risks: Elimination Substitution Isolation Administrative control Engineering control Personal protective equipment The risk controls are implemented which are high in order and is responsible for implementing multiple controls. The workers who are associated with the work at the construction site are communicated with the types of possible risks along with the process of risk management tools. Communication of the possibilities of the occurrence of risks is essential among the different site worker, as it will help in escaping them from different kinds of risks and hazards. Safe work method statements The safety of the workers is not only the responsibility of the principal contractor. It is also a responsibility of the subcontractors, who maintains SWMS register. The SWMS register is known as safe work method statements register that is used in maintaining the safety of the workers and how much safe the workers feel while working. The workers are engaged into many types of works that have risks. It is the responsibility of the contractors to check the level of safety of the machineries through SWMS register. Different types of methodologies are communicated to the people that area associated with high-risk jobs. There are certain characteristics of high-risk jobs in a construction site. The method statements are defined in the SWMS register so that they can efficiently manufacture the WHS management plan (Jones and Nhung 2016). Apart from that, the commitment of the people associated with the company itself and the construction site is mandatory for the success of the management plan. Workers must have a sense of trust towards the company so that they can deliver their best while meeting the demands of the clients. A form of coordination is necessary for the benefit of the workers as well as the construction managers. Training and supervision Supervision of the workers is necessary which should be mentioned in the WHS management plan of the company. The principal contractors along with the subcontractors are engaged in formulation of a supervision or induction program for the workers before proceeding to the work. The supervision program will include the following aspects: Rules of the site Facilities Main points of the WHS management plan Site specific particular hazards Higher risk in the work activities Expectations of the WHS management plan that includes procedures and policies The training module of the WHS management includes the following aspects such as: Ensuring that workers are trained and competent enough so that they are efficient enough in performing their works Ensuring the requirements of the onsite training and the required supervision to the workers Organizing external training for specific tasks Seeking different licenses for the high risk related works in the site Ensuring that workers are prepared for dealing with any types of risks while understanding different kinds of the hazards and problems associated with it (Bell 2013). The principal contractor has to maintain training and competency register in order to point out the requirements of the need of the training for the workers. Co-operation, consultation and co-ordination Cooperation, co-ordination and consultation of the people who are working not only in the construction site but also to the company are required for the success of the WHS management plan. The principal contractor has the responsibility of maintaining all the aspects of the WHS management plan as well as the progress of the project. Client needs up to date information about their work in progress. In order to keep in track of the record, a toolbox meeting record is not only maintained by principal contractor but also to the list of sub contractors who are associated with the work of the construction project. Once the work and health safety plan is commenced then it has to be kept in track so that the plan will work when required. For perfect implementation of any strategy, coordination and communication is necessary. Conveying of the basic ideas of the workers is required for the efficient productivity while reducing the possibilities of health and safety risks (Bell 2013). It is see n that the persons associated with the work of construction are prone to various life risks. Hence, the needs of the toolbox meeting record maintenance by the principal contractors are essential for the safety of workers. Incident Management In a construction site, there are possibilities for many emergencies and incidents that can be hazardous for the various categories of workers. Notifiable incidents can include fatality, a situation that requires hospitalization, dangerous incident where some persons can lose their lives. In this situation, incident report should be maintained by the principal contractor for keeping the track of the incidents that will occur in the site. Apart from that, the code of ethics and emergency responses should be maintained in the incident report that will help the principal contractor (Jones and Nhung 2016). Apart from that, there is a stage of emergency preparedness. While ensuring different forms of emergency preparedness, some points have to consider While showing the workers, the checklists and emergency points of the WHS management plan. While checking and marking the locations and conditions of the fire extinguishers and keeping the track about the conditions Ensuring that all workers are alert of the various emergency checklists during the time of their induction During the time of any emergency condition, the principal contractor must be notified. Or someone can call the emergency number for preliminary help during the emergencies. Site safety rules The company must have to formulate rules regarding the health and safety concerns of the people working at the site. The rules of site must consider some general assumptions so that they can cover the basic possibilities of risks such as falling objects, personal protective equipments, falling from heights, working in trench or demolition work, underground essential services, excavation work. Apart from that, it is to be checked that the site amenities must be present in the construction site for the benefit of the workers. Basic site amenities include hygienic working environment, drinking water facilities and ethical behavior of the supervisors (Bell 2013). The principal contractor of the construction site has the duty to maintain site induction register that is required to keep the records of the various incidents and fatal disasters that have been occurred earlier in the site. The significance of the checklist maintenance is to rectify the errors that has been caused earlier while improving the health and safety concerns of the people in the site. However, the subcontractors also have to follow up with the result and effectiveness of the contingency plan that has been commenced for the benefit of the health conditions of the workers (Jones and Nhung 2016). Subcontractor Management In a construction site, under a principal contractor, many subcontractors are working in that place. The responsibility of the principal contractor is to manage all the works of the other categories of workers along with different types of subcontractors. The subcontractors have a definite role in commencing the WHS management plan for the improvement of the working conditions of the workers, that are responsible for doing high-risk works and for the people doing lower risks works. However, the principal contractor in this scenario have to maintain a subcontractor register while checking the progress of the different tasks assigned to the sub contractors not only for the clients but also for the work health and safety management plan (Jones and Nhung 2016). Management of the sub contractors is an important task that will determine the effectiveness of the result of the workplace health and safety management plan at the construction site of the company. The subcontractors are again ch eck the work in progress for the workers that work under them and their security and safety level because they have to formulate a report regarding these aspects. They have to show the report to the principal contractors of the construction site. Health and safety site inspections Inspection at a frequent interval is necessary because it will help in recognizing the number of injuries as well as the areas that can be a cause of various types of hazards. Apart from that, feedback should be taken from the different workers so that they can keep the health and safety concerns for them in a proper manner. In this case, daily inspection sheet should be formulated so that the possibilities of various hazards can be detected previously. The sub contractors have to track the record to the daily inspection sheet and they have to report it to the principal contractor of the site. Beside this, a register of injuries are to be enlisted in the register. It is essential for making any changes in the WHS management plan for the construction site of the company. The rate of injuries will also help the management bodies to determine the types of injuries that can be occurred in the future (Bell 2013). Further changes of the WHS management can be determined by the trends of inj uries that have been occurred earlier. Conclusion The WHS management plan is formulated based on some assumptions and previous trends of fatal accidents that have been occurred at the construction site earlier. There are many people who are involved in the plan such as principal contractor, sub contractors, different electricians, doctors, and experts, who are required in the WHS management plan. The roles and responsibilities of these persons are described in details. Besides this, various aspects of the health and safety plan are also explained in details. References Bell, V.R., 2013. The politics of managing a World Heritage Site: the complex case of Hadrians Wall.Leisure Studies,32(2), pp.115-132. Jones, T.E. and Nhung, D.T.H., 2016. Local constraints on community participation in cultural world heritage site management: The case of Hoi an ancient town, Vietnam.CAUTHE 2016: The Changing Landscape of Tourism and Hospitality: The Impact of Emerging Markets and Emerging Destinations, p.1017.
Wednesday, April 1, 2020
Crusades In the Middle Ages, Christians considered Palestine the Holy Land because it was where Jesus had lived and taught. The Arabs had conquered Palestine in the 600s. Most Arabs were Muslims, but they usually tolerated other religions. Jews and Christians who paid their taxes and observed other regulations were free to live in Palestine and practice their own religion. The Arab rulers didn't usually interfere with Christian pilgrims visiting Palestine, and European traders could generally do business there. During the 1000s the Seljuk Turks, people from central Asia who had adopted the Muslim faith, conquered Palestine and attacked Asia Minor, which was part of the Byzantine Empire. When the Turks threatened the capital city of Constantinople, the Byzantine emperor appealed to the pope in Rome. Because Christian pilgrims going to Palestine came home with reports of persecution from the Turks, the Byzantine emperor's appeal for help found a reception in Europe. Pope Urban I wanted to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims. He called a great meeting of church leaders and French nobles at Clermont France in 1095. At the meeting he encouraged the powerful feudal nobles to stop fighting with each other, and to join in one big war against the"unbelievers." Urban's request made his listeners very enthusiastic and they joined in one big cry, "God wills it!" From Clermont people traveled through France preaching the cause. The people who joined the expeditions sewed a cloth cross on their clothes. They were called crusaders, from the Latin word cruciata, which means, "marked with a cross." People joined the Crusades, the expeditions to regain the Holy Land, for many different reasons. Most knights joined the crusades for the land and plunder in the rich Middle East. Merchants saw a chance to make money. The pope promised both heavenly and earthly rewards. Those who died on a Crusade were said to go strait to heaven. The pope also guaranteed church protection of the crusader's property and family during his absence. Debtors who joined a Crusade had their debts canceled. Criminals were relieved of punishment. The Crusades appealed to both a love of adventure and the promise of reward- the desire to escape debts or punishment. French and Norman nobles led the First Crusade that lasted from 1096 to 1099. In three organized armies, they marched across Europe to Constantinople. The crusaders received a hostile reception in Constantinople. The Byzantine emperor had asked for some assistance, but now, seeing three armies approaching the city, he feared they might capture and plunder the capitol. After much discussion the Byzantines allowed the crusaders to pass through Constantinople to begin their long, hot march across Asia Minor toward Palestine. In their wool and leather garments and their heavy armor, the crusaders suffered severely from the heat. Because they had few pack animals, a shortage of food and water plagued them. Additional problems erupted when the leaders quarreled over fiefs in the lands they captured. Despite these difficulties, however, the crusaders forged on to capture the city of Antioch. Then they marched toward Jerusalem. If the Turks had not also been quarreling and disunited, the expedition would have failed. Conditions improved as the crusaders marched down the seacoast toward Palestine. Fleets of ships from the Italian cities of Genoa and Pisa brought reinforcements and supplies. The crusaders captured Jerusalem after a short battle and slaughtered the Muslim inhabitants. One leader wrote to the pope that his horse's legs had been bloodstained to the knees from riding among the bodies of the dead Muslims. In the Middle East the crusaders set up four small states: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripole, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem. They introduced European feudalism and subdivided the land into fiefs controlled by vassals and lords. For almost a century, the Europeans occupied these lands. Brisk European trade, with goods carried mostly in Italian ships, sprang up. Christians and Muslims lived in close proximity and grew to respect each other. Many Christians adopted Eastern customs and came to prefer Eastern food and clothing. The Second Crusade began in 1147, after the Turks had recaptured the important city of Edessa and threatened the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In this Crusade, King Luis VII of France and the Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad III led their armies across Europe to the Holy Land. They were fighting separately, and didn't join forces until they got to Damascus, which was held by the Turks. Luis and Conrad couldn't capture the city and returned to Europe disgracefully in two years. In 1187 the
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Feature Extraction And Classification Information Technology Essays Feature Extraction And Classification Information Technology Essay Feature Extraction And Classification Information Technology Essay Any given remote feeling image can be decomposed into several characteristics. The term characteristic refers to remote feeling scene objects ( e.g. flora types, urban stuffs, etc ) with similar features ( whether they are spectral, spacial or otherwise ) . Therefore, the chief aim of a feature extraction technique is to accurately recover these characteristics. The term Feature Extraction can therefore be taken to embrace a really wide scope of techniques and procedures, runing from simple ordinal / interval measurings derived from single sets ( such as thermic temperature ) to the coevals, update and care of distinct characteristic objects ( such as edifices or roads ) . The definition can besides be taken to embrace manual and semi-automated ( or assisted ) vector characteristic gaining control nevertheless Feature Collection is the subject of a separate White Paper non discussed farther here. Similarly, derivation of height information from stereo or interferometric techniques could be considered feature extraction but is discussed elsewhere. What follows is a treatment of the scope and pertinence of characteristic extraction techniques available within Leica Geosystems Geospatial Imaging s suite of distant feeling package applications. Derived Information Figure 1: Unsupervised Categorization of the Landsat informations on the left and manual killing produced the land screen categorization shown on the : To many analysts, even ordinal or interval measurings derived straight from the DN values of imagination represent characteristic extraction. ERDAS IMAGINEAÃ ® and ERDAS ERM Pro provide legion techniques of this nature, including ( but non limited to ) : The direct standardization of the DN values of the thermic sets of orbiter and airborne detectors to deduce merchandises such as Sea Surface Temperature ( SST ) and Mean Monthly SST. One of the most widely known derived characteristic types is flora wellness through the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ( NDVI ) , where the ruddy and near-infrared ( NIR ) wavelength sets are ratioed to bring forth a uninterrupted interval measuring taken to stand for the proportion of flora / biomass in each pel or the health/vigor of a peculiar flora type. Other types of characteristics can besides be derived utilizing indices, such as clay and mineral composing. Chief Component Analysis ( PCA Jia and Richards, 1999 ) and Minimum Noise Fraction ( MNF Green et al. , 1988 ) are two widely employed characteristic extraction techniques in distant detection. These techniques aim to de-correlate the spectral sets to retrieve the original characteristics. In other words, these techniques perform additive transmutation of the spectral sets such that the resulting constituents are uncorrelated. With these techniques, the characteristic being extracted is more abstract for illustration, the first chief constituent is by and large held to stand for the high frequence information nowadays in the scene, instead than stand foring a specific land usage or screen type. The Independent Component Analysis ( ICA ) based feature extraction technique performs a additive transmutation to obtain the independent constituents ( ICs ) . A direct deduction of this is that each constituent will incorporate information matching to a specific characteristic. Equally good as being used as stand-alone characteristic extraction techniques, many are besides used as inputs for the techniques discussed below. This can take one of two signifiers for high dimensionality informations ( hyperspectral imagination, etc ) , the techniques can minimise the noise and the dimensionality of the information ( in order to advance more efficient and accurate processing ) , whereas for low dimensionality informations ( grayscale informations, RGB imagination, etc. ) they can be used to deduce extra beds ( NDVI, texture steps, higher-order Principal Components, etc ) . The extra beds are so input with the beginning image in a categorization / characteristic extraction procedure to supply end product that is more accurate. Other techniques aimed at deducing information from raster informations can besides be thought of as characteristic extraction. For illustration, Intervisibility/Line Of Site ( LOS ) computations from Digital Elevation Models ( DEMs ) represent th e extraction of a what can I see characteristic. Similarly, tools like the IMAGINE Modeler Maker enable clients to develop usage techniques for characteristic extraction in the broader context of geospatial analysis, such as where is the best location for my mill or where are the locations of important alteration in land screen. Such derived characteristic information are besides campaigners for input to some of the more advanced characteristic extraction techniques discussed below, such as supplying accessory information beds to object-based characteristic extraction attacks. Supervised Categorization Multispectral categorization is the procedure of screening pels into a finite figure of single categories, or classs of informations, based on their informations file values. If a pel satisfies a certain set of standards, the pel is assigned to the category that corresponds to those standards. Depending on the type of information you want to pull out from the original informations, categories may be associated with known characteristics on the land or may merely stand for countries that look different to the computing machine. An illustration of a classified image is a land screen map, demoing flora, bare land, grazing land, urban, etc. To sort, statistics are derived from the spectral features of all pels in an image. Then, the pels are sorted based on mathematical standards. The categorization procedure interrupt down into two parts: preparation and classifying ( utilizing a determination regulation ) . First, the computing machine system must be trained to acknowledge forms in the information. Training is the procedure of specifying the standards by which these forms are recognized. Training can be performed with either a supervised or an unsupervised method, as explained below. Supervised preparation is closely controlled by the analyst. In this procedure, you select pels that represent forms or set down screen characteristics that you recognize, or that you can place with aid from other beginnings, such as aerial exposures, land truth informations or maps. Knowledge of the information, and of the categories desired, is hence needed before categorization. By placing these forms, you can teach the computing machine system to place pels with similar features. The pels identified by the preparation samples are analyzed statistically to organize what are referred to as signatures. After the signatures are defined, the pels of the image are sorted into categories based on the signatures by usage of a categorization determination regulation. The determination regulation is a mathematical algorithm that, utilizing informations contained in the signature, performs the existent sorting of pels into distinguishable category values. If the categorization is accurate, the ensuing categories represent the classs within the informations that you originally identified with the preparation samples. Supervised Categorization can be used as a term to mention to a broad assortment of feature extraction attacks ; nevertheless, it is traditionally used to place the usage of specific determination regulations such as Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance and Mahalonobis Distance. Unsupervised Categorization Unsupervised preparation is more computer-automated. It enables you to stipulate some parametric quantities that the computing machine uses to bring out statistical forms that are built-in in the information. These forms do non needfully correspond to straight meaningful features of the scene, such as immediate, easy recognized countries of a peculiar dirt type or land usage. The forms are merely bunchs of pels with similar spectral features. In some instances, it may be more of import to place groups of pels with similar spectral features than it is to screen pels into recognizable classs. Unsupervised preparation is dependent upon the informations itself for the definition of categories. This method is normally used when less is known about the informations before categorization. It is so the analyst s duty, after categorization, to attach significance to the resulting categories. Unsupervised categorization is utile merely if the categories can be suitably interpreted. ERDAS IMAGI NE provides several tools to help in this procedure, the most advanced being the Grouping Tool. The Unsupervised attack does hold its advantages. Since there is no trust on user-provided preparation samples ( which might non stand for pure illustrations of the category / characteristic desired and which would therefore bias the consequences ) , the algorithmic grouping of pels is frequently more likely to bring forth statistically valid consequences. Consequently, many users of remotely sensed informations have switched to leting package to bring forth homogeneous groupings via unsupervised categorization techniques and so utilize the locations of developing informations to assist label the groups. The authoritative Supervised and Unsupervised Classification techniques ( every bit good as intercrossed attacks using both techniques and fuzzed categorization ) have been used for decennaries with great success on medium to lower declaration imagination ( imagination with pixel sizes of 5m or larger ) , nevertheless one of their important disadvantages is that their statistical premises by and large preclude their application to high declaration imagination. They are besides hampered by the necessity for multiple sets to increase the truth of the categorization. The tendency toward higher declaration detectors means that the figure of available sets to work with is by and large reduced. Hyperspectral Optical detectors can be broken into three basic categories: panchromatic, multispectral and hyperspectral. Multispectral detectors typically collect a few ( 3-25 ) , broad ( 100-200 nanometer ) , and perchance, noncontiguous spectral sets. Conversely, Hyperspectral detectors typically collect 100s of narrow ( 5-20 nanometer ) immediate sets. The name, hyperspectral, implies that the spectral sampling exceeds the spectral item of the mark ( i.e. , the single extremums, troughs and shoulders of the spectrum are resolvable ) . Given finite informations transmittal and/or managing capableness, an operational orbiter system must do a tradeoff between spacial and spectral declaration. This same tradeoff exists for the analyst or information processing installation. Therefore, in general, as the figure of sets additions there must be a corresponding lessening in spacial declaration. This means that most pels are assorted pels and most marks ( characteristics ) are subpixel in size. It is, hence, necessary to hold specialized algorithms which leverage the spectral declaration of the detector to clear up subpixel marks or constituents. Hyperspectral categorization techniques constitute algorithms ( such as Orthogonal Subspace Projection, Constrained Energy Minimization, Spectral Correlation Mapper, Spectral Angle Mapper, etc. ) tailored to expeditiously pull out characteristics from imagination with a big dimensionality ( figure of sets ) and where the characteristic by and large does non stand for the primary component of the detectors instantaneous field of position. This is besides frequently performed by comparing to research lab derived stuff ( characteristic ) spectra as opposed to imagery-derived preparation samples, which besides necessitate a suite of pre-processing and analysis stairss tailored to hyperspectral imagination. Subpixel Classification IMAGINE Subpixel ClassifieraÃ¢â¬Å¾? is a supervised, non-parametric spectral classifier that performs subpixel sensing and quantification of a specified stuff of involvement ( MOI ) . The procedure allows you to develop material signatures and use them to sort image pels. It reports the pixel fraction occupied by the stuff of involvement and may be used for stuffs covering every bit low as 20 % of a pel. Additionally, its alone image standardization procedure allows you to use signatures developed in one scene to other scenes from the same detector. Because it addresses the assorted pel job, IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier successfully identifies a specific stuff when other stuffs are besides present in a pel. It discriminates between spectrally similar stuffs, such as single works species, specific H2O types or typical edifice stuffs. Additionally, it allows you to develop spectral signatures that are scene-to-scene movable. IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier enables you to: aÃâ ? Classify objects smaller than the spacial declaration of the detector aÃâ ? Discriminate specific stuffs within assorted pels aÃâ ? Detect stuffs that occupy from 100 % to every bit small as 20 % of a pel aÃâ ? Report the fraction of material nowadays in each pel classified aÃâ ? Develop signatures portable from one scene to another aÃâ ? Normalize imagination for atmospheric effects aÃâ ? Search wide-area images rapidly to observe little or big characteristics mixed with other stuffs The primary difference between IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier and traditional classifiers is the manner in which it derives a signature from the preparation set and so applies it during categorization. Traditional classifiers typically form a signature by averaging the spectra of all preparation set pels for a given characteristic. The resulting signature contains the parts of all stuffs present in the preparation set pels. This signature is so matched against whole-pixel spectra found in the image informations. In contrast, IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier derives a signature for the spectral constituent that is common to the preparation set pels following background remotion. This is usually a pure spectrum of the stuff of involvement. Since stuffs can change somewhat in their spectral visual aspect, IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier accommodates this variableness within the signature. The IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier signature is hence purer for a specific stuff and can more accurately observe the MOI. During categorization, the procedure subtracts representative background spectra to happen the best fractional lucifer between the pure signature spectrum and campaigner residuary spectra. IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier and traditional classifiers perform best under different conditions. IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier should work better to know apart different species of flora, typical edifice stuffs or specific types of stone or dirt. You would utilize it to happen a specific stuff even when it covers less than a pel. You may prefer a traditional classifier when the MOI is composed of a spectrally varied scope of stuffs that must be included as a individual categorization unit. For illustration, a wood that contains a big figure of spectrally distinguishable stuffs ( heterogenous canopy ) and spans multiple pels in size may be classified better utilizing a minimal distance classifier. IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier can congratulate a traditional classifier by placing subpixel happenings of specific species of flora within that forest. When make up ones minding to utilize IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier, callback that it identifies a individual stuff, the MOI, whereas a traditional classifier will sort many stuffs or characteristics happening with a scene. The Subpixel Classification procedure can therefore be considered a feature extraction procedure instead than a wall to palisade categorization procedure. Figure 2: Trial utilizing panels highlights the greater truth of sensing provided by a subpixel classifier over a traditional classifier, In rule, IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier can be used to map any stuff that has a distinguishable spectral signature relation to other stuffs in a scene. IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier has been most exhaustively evaluated for flora categorization applications in forestry, agribusiness and wetland stock list, every bit good as for semisynthetic objects, such as building stuffs. IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier has besides been used in specifying roads and waterways. Classification truth depends on many factors. Some of the most of import are: 1 ) Number of spectral sets in the imagination. Discrimination capableness additions with the figure of sets. Smaller pixel fractions can be detected with more sets. The 20 % threshold used by the package is based on 6-band informations. 2 ) Target/background contrast. 3 ) Signature quality. Ground truth information helps in developing and measuring signature quality. 4 ) Image quality, including band-to-band enrollment, standardization and resampling ( nearest neighbor preferred ) . Two undertakings affecting subpixel categorization of wetland tree species ( Cypress and Tupelo ) and of an invasive wood tree species ( Loblolly Pine ) included extended field look intoing for categorization polish and truth appraisal. The categorization truth for these stuffs was 85-95 % . Categorization of pels outside the preparation set country was greatly improved by IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier in comparing to traditional classifiers. In a separate quantitative rating survey designed to measure the truth of IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier, 100s of semisynthetic panels of assorted known sizes were deployed and imaged. The approximative sum of panel in each pel was measured. When compared to the Material Pixel Fraction ( the sum of stuff in each pel ) reported by IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier, a high correlativity was measured. IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier outperformed a maximal likeliness classifier in observing these panels. It detected 190 % more of the pels incorporating panels, with a lower mistake rate, and reported the sum of panel in each pel classified. IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier works on any multispectral informations beginning, including airborne or satellite, with three or more spatially registered sets. The information must be in either 8-bit or 16-bit format. Landsat Thematic Mapper ( TM ) , SPOT XS and IKONOS multispectral imagination have been most widely used because of informations handiness. It will besides work with informations from other high declaration commercial detectors such as Quickbird, FORMOSAT-2, airborne beginnings and OrbView-3. IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier will besides work with most hyperspectral informations beginnings. Expert Knowledge-Based Classification One of the major disadvantages to most of the techniques discussed supra is that they are all per-pixel classifiers. Each pel is treated in isolation when utilizing the technique to find which characteristic or category to delegate it to there is no proviso to utilize extra cues such as context, form and propinquity, cues which the human ocular reading system takes for granted when construing what it sees. One of the first commercially available efforts to get the better of these restrictions was the IMAGINE Expert Classifier. The adept categorization package provides a rules-based attack to multispectral image categorization, post-classification polish and GIS mold. In kernel, an adept categorization system is a hierarchy of regulations, or a determination tree that describes the conditions for when a set of low degree component information gets abstracted into a set of high degree informational categories. The constitutional information consists of user-defined variables and includes raster imagination, vector beds, spacial theoretical accounts, external plans and simple scalars. A regulation is a conditional statement, or list of conditional statements, about the variable s informations values and/or attributes that find an informational constituent or hypotheses. Multiple regulations and hypotheses can be linked together into a hierarchy that finally describes a concluding set of mark informational categories or terminal hypotheses. Assurance values associated with each status are besides combined to supply a assurance image matching to the concluding end product classified image. While the Expert Classification attack does enable accessory informations beds to be taken into consideration, it is still non genuinely an object based agencies of image categorization ( regulations are still evaluated on a pel by pixel footing ) . Additionally, it is highly user-intensive to construct the theoretical accounts an expert is required in the morphology of the characteristics to be extracted, which besides so necessitate to be turned into graphical theoretical accounts and plans that feed complex regulations, all of which need constructing up from the constituents available. Even one time a cognition base has been constructed it may non be easy movable to other images ( different locations, day of the months, etc ) . Image Cleavage Cleavage means the grouping of neighbouring pels into parts ( or sections ) based on similarity standards ( digital figure, texture ) . Image objects in remotely sensed imagination are frequently homogeneous and can be delineated by cleavage. Therefore, the figure of elements, as a footing for a undermentioned image categorization, is tremendously reduced if the image is foremost segmented. The quality of subsequent categorization is straight affected by cleavage quality. Ultimately, Image Segmentation is besides another signifier of unsupervised image categorization, or characteristic extraction. However, it has several advantages over the authoritative multispectral image categorization techniques, the cardinal differentiators being the ability to use it to panchromatic informations and besides to high declaration informations. However, Image Segmentation is besides similar to the unsupervised attack of image categorization in that it is an machine-controlled segregation of the ima ge into groups of pels with like features without any effort to delegate category names or labels to the groups. It suffers from an extra drawback in that there is by and large no effort made at the point of bring forthing the cleavage to utilize the section features to place similar sections. With Unsupervised Classification you may hold widely separated, distinguishable groups of pels, but their statistical similarity means they are assigned to the same category ( even though you do non yet cognize what characteristic type that category is ) , whereas with Image Segmentation, each section is merely uniquely identified. Statistical steps can normally be recorded per section to assist with station processing. Consequently, in order to label the sections with a characteristic type / land screen, the technique must be combined with some other signifier of categorization, such as Expert Knowledge-Based Classification or as portion of the Feature Extraction work flow provided by IMAGINE Objective. OBJECT-BASED FEATURE EXTRACTION AND CLASSIFICATION Globally, GIS sections and mapping establishments invest considerable gross into making and, possibly more significantly, keeping their geospatial databases. As the Earth is invariably altering, even the most precise base function must be updated or replaced on a regular basis. Traditionally, the gaining control and update of geospatial information has been done through labour and cost intensive manual digitisation ( for illustration from aerial exposure ) and post-production surveying. Since so, assorted efforts have been made to assist automatize these work flows by analysing remotely sensed imagination. Remotely perceived imagination, whether airborne or orbiter based, provides a rich beginning of timely information if it can be easilly exploited into functional information. These efforts at mechanization have frequently resulted in limited success, particularly as the declaration of imagination and the intended function graduated table additions. With recent inventions in geospat ial engineering, we are now at a topographic point where work flows can be successfully automated. Figure 4: The basic construction of a characteristic theoretical account demoing the additive mode in which the information is analyzed. Operators are designed as plugins so that more can be easy added as required for specific characteristic extraction scenarios. When Landsat was launched more than 30 old ages ago, it was heralded as a new age for automatizing function of the Earth. However, the imagination, and hence the geospatial informations dervied from it, was of comparatively harsh resoution, and thereby became limited to smaller graduated table function applications. Its analysis was besides restricted to remote feeling experts. Equally, the traditional supervised and unsupervised categorization techniques developed to pull out information from these types of imagination were limited to coarser declarations. Today s beginnings for higher declaration imagination ( primarilly intending 1m or smaller pel sizes, such as that produced by the IKONOS, QuickBird, and WorldView satelittes or by airborne detectors ) do non endure from the assorted pel phenomenon seen with lower declaration imagination, and, hence the statistical premises which must be met for the traditional supervised and unsupervised categorization techniques do non keep. Therefore, more advanced techniques are required to analyse the high declaration imagination required to make and keep big graduated table function and geospatial databases. The best techniques for turn toing this job analyze the imagination on an object, as opposed to pixel, footing. IMAGINE Objective provides object based multi-scale image categorization and characteristic extraction capablenesss to reliably physique and maintain accurate geospatial content. With IMAGINE Objective, imagination and geospatial informations of all sorts can be analyzed to bring forth GIS-ready function. IMAGINE Objective includes an advanced set of tools for characteristic extraction, update and change sensing, enabling geospatial informations beds to be created and maintained through the usage of remotely sensed imagination. This engineering crosses the boundary of traditional image processing with computing machine vision through the usage of pixel degree and true object processing, finally emulating the human ocular system of image reading. Providing to both experts and novitiates likewise, IMAGINE Objective contains a broad assortment of powerful tools. For distant detection and sphere experts, IMAGINE Objective includes a desktop authoring system for edifice and put to deathing characteristic particular ( edifices, roads, etc ) and/or landcover ( e.g. , flora type ) processing methodological analysiss. Other users may set and use bing illustrations of such methodological analysiss to their ain informations. The user interface enables the expert to put up feature theoretical accounts required to pull out specific characteristic types from specific types of imagination. For illustration, route center lines from 60cm Color-Infrared ( CIR ) orbiter imagination require a specific characteristic theoretical account based around different image-based cues. Constructing footmarks from six inch true colour aerial picture taking and LIDAR surface theoretical accounts require a different characteristic theoretical account. For those familiar with bing ERDAS IMAGINEAÃ ® capablenesss, an analogy can be drawn with Model Maker, with its ability to enable experient users to diagrammatically construct their ain spacial theoretical accounts utilizing the crude edifice blocks provided in the interface. The less experient user can merely utilize constitutional illustration Feature Models or those built by experts, using them as-is or modifying through the user interface. While similar to the IMAGINE Expert Classifier attack, the building and usage of characteristic theoretical accounts within IMAGINE Objective is simpler and more powerful. Constructing a characteristic theoretical account is more additive and intuitive to the expert constructing the theoretical account. In add-on, the support for supervised preparation and evidentiary acquisition of the classifier itself means that the characteristic theoretical accounts are more movable to other images one time built.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
The influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on Taiwanese Consumers' Purchase Intention and Brand Image in the Diamo - Dissertation Example They also reported that compared to 2010, the global diamond sales significantly increased by 18% to $71 billion, close to the 2007 peak of $73 billion before the crisis. IDEX (2013) and Tacy LTD (2013) indicated that the majority of growth contributed to the mounting demand from Chinese and Indian markets. De Beers, which is reviewed in this proposal as an example of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading diamond companies for more than a century, reached their second highest level of sales ever to $6.5 billion in 2011. In the 1990s an issue of Ã¢â¬Å"conflict diamondsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"blood diamondsÃ¢â¬ was heatedly debated across the globe. The diamond industry encountered the crisis from their diamond sourced countries. In several politically unstable African countries, such as Angola, Sierra Leone, Liberia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the diamond mines were under control of the military as a means to finance their military power. With the mediaÃ¢â¬Ës widespread coverage and t he movie Ã¢â¬Å"Blood DiamondÃ¢â¬ , the transactions between diamond buyers and the military, although not all from such illegal channels, were regarded as intensifying violent tribal conflict. Consequently, the reputation of the diamond industry was blackened (The Kimberly Process, 2013; Pauwelyn, 2003; Worldbank.org, 2013). In response to this situation, the Kimberley Process was organized in 2002. Under the auspices of the United Nations, The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) conducted a list of rules that every diamond trading country should obey: certification of rough diamonds is now required before being exported (Pauwelyn, 2003; Schefer, 2005). This is to "guarantee that their trade does not finance rebel activities" (The Kimberly Process, 2013). To establish a positive prestige from the infamous Ã¢â¬Å"blood diamondÃ¢â¬ image, and to ensure that De BeersÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"corporate activities contribute significantly to the development and prosperity of the co untries and communities in which they operateÃ¢â¬ (De Beers Group, 2013), their CSR principles has developed across five sustainability factors Ã¢â¬â Economics, Ethics, Employees, Communities and Environment, as all well as obeying the KPCS trading system (ibid). The case of De Beers will be explored, because it is a company which has executed its CSR policy since 2006, which provides luxury industry marketers a possible framework for strategic thinking and the effective use of CSR activities. There has been an upward research trend on how a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate social responsibility policy benefits consumer communication for several decades (Maignan, 2001). Meanwhile, this academic stream has invigorated the potential marketing development of corporate responsibility initiatives, such as the issue of corporate sustainability, environmentalism and corporate citizenship, among the real business world (Menon & Menon, 1997; Drumwright, 1994; Wigley, 2008; Lee, 2009;). Howev er, most of previous research discussed on CSR is more in the context of sustainability management or shareholder theory, rather than consumer aspects of understanding of this notion. Reinforcing this, Sen and